4. Nepenthes bicalcarata HOOK. F., in D. C. Prodr., XVII, p. 97 (1873) ; BROOME, Garden, XVII, p. 542, cum ic. (1880) ; REG., Gartenfl., 1880, p. 263 (1880) ; LIND., Ill. Hort., XXVIII, p. 9, t. CCCCVIII (1881) ; REG., Gartenfl., 1881, p. 150, ic. 152 (1881) ; BURB., Gard. Chron., 1882, 1 ; p. 56 (1882) ; BECC., Mal., II, p 231, t. LV (1886) ; Mal., III, p. 4 & 8 (1886) ; DIXON, Gard. Chron., 1888, 1. p. 179 (1888) ; WUNSCHM., in ENGL. & PRANTL, Nat. Pflanzenfam., III, 2, p. 260 (1891) ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 149 ic. 9 (1895) ; MOTT., Dict., III, p. 447 (1896) ; BURB., Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc., XXI, p. 259 (1897) ; BOERL., Handl, III, 1, p. 54 (1900) ; BECC., For. Born., p. 543 (1902) ; HEMSL., Gard. Chron., 1905, 1, p. 260 (1905) ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 35, ic. 14 (1908) ; NEGER, Handwörterb. Naturwiss., V, p. 527 (1914) ; MACF., in BAIL., Cycl., IV, p. 2128 (1919) ; MERR., bibl. enum. Born., p. 281 (1921) ; DANS., Trop. Nat., XVI, p. 201. ic. 3 (1927) ; N. Dyak MOORE, Journ. Bot., XVIII, p. 1, t. 206 (1880) ; BURB., Gard. Chron., 1882, 1, p. 56 (1882) ; BECC., Mal., III, p. 1 (1886).
Icones: Garden, XVII, t. CCXXXVII (1880) bona, colorata, ascidium 1 inferius ; Journ. Bot,, XVIII, t. 206 (1880) bona ; Ill. Hort., XXVIII, t. CCCCVIII (1881) bona, colorata, planta non florens ; Gartenfl., 1881, p. 152 (1881) optima, asc. 1 ; BECC., Mal., II, t. LV (1895) optima ; Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 219, ic. 9 (1895) ; ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, ic. 14 (1908) optima ; Trop. Nat., XVI, p. 201 (1927) asc. 1, sectione longitudinali.
Folia mediocria petiolata, lamina lanceolata, nervis longitudinalibus utrinque 10-15, vagina c. 2/3 caulis amplectente ; ascidia rosularum ignota ; ascidia inferiora maiora, urceolata, alis 2 fimbriatis ; peristomio in collum 2-3 cm longum prolongato, sub operculo spinas 2 ferente, applanato, ad 10 mm lato, costis 1/3-1/4 mm distantibus, dentibus 2-3 x longioribus quam latis ; operculo reniformi, facie inferiore plano ; ascidia superiora magnitudine mediocria, infundibuliformia, costis 2 prominentibus ; peristomio in collum ad 5 cm longum elevato, sub operculo spinas 2 ferente, applanato, c. 5-8 mm lato, costis dentibusque 1/3-1/4 mm distantibus, dentibus 2-3 x longioribus quam latis ; operculo reniformi, facie inferiore plano inflorescentia panicula ramis inferioribus longis 3-14-floris, superioribus brevioribus floribusque paucioribus ; indumentum in omnibus partibus iuventute parcum stellatum, statu adulto subnullum.
Stems climbing, up to 15 m long, cylindrical, the part with adult leaves about 6 to 16 mm thick ; often short shoots at the foot of older plants. Rosettes unknown. Leaves of the short shoots scattered, petiolate, obovate-lanceolate, 20 to 25 cm long, 6 to 8 cm broad, cuneate towards the rounded, slightly peltate or emarginate apex, gradually attenuate into the narrowly winged, 2 to 3 cm long petiole, which forms a laterally flattened, almost wholly amplexicaul sheath ; pennate nerves delicate, numerous running transversely towards the margin ; longitudinal nerves originating from the basal part of the midrib, occupying almost the whole lamina ; tendrils 12 to 30 cm long hanging, 2 to 3 mm thick near the lamina, swollen up to 6 mm near the pitcher and there usually with a round hole bitten by ants. Leaves of the climbing stems scattered, thin-coriaceous, petiolate, lanceolate, the lamina 20 to 65 cm long, 6 to 12 cm broad, acute or acuminate towards the rounded apex, gradually or abruptly attenuate into the 4 to 8 cm long, canaliculate and narrowly winged petiole, which forms a laterally flattened sheath, clasping the stem for 2/3 ; nervation distinct, the pennate nerves delicate and numerous, running almost transversely towards the margin, the longitudinal ones 10 to 15 on each side, originating from the base of the lamina, running parallel towards the apex, occupying almost the whole lamina ; tendrils 10 to 20 cm long, always with curl, swollen in the curled part and there with a round hole bitten by ants. Pitchers of the short shoots short and wide, urceolate, abruptly originating from the hanging tendril, about as long as broad, almost straight on the winged side, strongly curved on the side of the lid, 6 to 10 cm long and broad, with 2 fringed wings over the whole length, the wings 6 to 12 mm broad, the fringe segments 1 to 5 mm long, l 1/2 to 3 mm apart ; mouth almost horizontal in front, elevated towards the lid ; peristome involute in the outer part, flat or almost flat in the inner part, up to 10 mm broad, the ribs 1/3 to 1/4 mm apart ; teeth of the inner margin 2 to 3 times as long as broad ; neck of the peristome 2 to 3 cm long, with 2 slightly curved thorns under the lid ; inner surface of the pitcher wholly glandular with minute overarched glands, about 3000 to 5000 glands on 1 cm2 ; lid reniform, 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 cm long, 4 to 5 cm broad, very deeply cordate, palminervous, with numerous small orbicular scattered glands below, flat for the rest ; spur inserted 5 to 10 mm from the lid, 5 to 10 mm long, 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 mm broad and almost so thick. Pitchers of the upper leaves infundibuliform, somewhat campanulate, gradually originating from the hanging end of the tendril, triangular and shortly incurved in the basal part, 5 to 13 cm high, 3 1/2 to 8 cm wide at the top, with 2 prominent ribs ; mouth and peristome like those of the lower pitchers, but the neck longer, up to 5 cm long ; spur and lid like those of the lower pitchers, but often larger, the lid up to 4 cm long, up to 10 cm broad ; spur up to 20 mm long. (Male inflorescence like the female one, but larger, up to 100 cm long, the lower branches 4- to 15-flowered. Tepals obovate. Staminal column shorter than the perigone, glabrous.) Female inflorescence a loose panicle, the peduncle short, about 5 mm thick, the axis about 30 cm long, attenuate, the lower branches about 4 cm long, 3-flowered, only the uppermost 2- or 1-flowered, all of them without bracts. Tepals lanceolate, about 4 mm long. Fruit slender, 10 to 15 mm long, the valves 2 to 2 1/2 mm broad, attenuate towards both ends, but a little more towards the top than towards the base. Seed unknown. Indumentum of young parts here and there short and stellate, later deciduous. Colour of herbarium specimens fallow-dun or grayish, rarely more cinnamomous or rusty. (Description after the plants seen by the author, the part between brackets after MACFARLANE.)
BORNEO. Sarawak: Lawas River (D.C., Prodr., XVII, p. 98) ; Baram, HEWITT, H. B. (0) ; H. S. M. (0) ; Undup, Batang Lupar (D.C., Prodr., XVII, p. 98 ; BECC., Mal., III p. 231) ; Mt. Lambir, near Kuching (ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 35) ; Western Division: 1882, TEUSCHER, H. B. (0) ; Sintang, TEYSMANN 10957, H. B. (f): 10958, H. B. (0) ; Kapoeas, TEYSMANN 10970, H. B. (0) ; G. Kelam, 9 II 1894, HALLIER B 2438, H. B. (0) ; 11 II 1894, HALLIER, B 2472, H. B. (0) ; between S. and G. Kenepai. 8 I 1894, HALLIER B 1900, H. B. (0) ; upper course of the S. Kapoeas, 1896, JAHERI (Exp. NIEUWENHUIS) 75, H. B. (0).
The records "Lawas-Fluss bei Sintang, TEYSMANN" and "Undup, TEYSMANN" by MACFARLANE, are erroneous. Sintang is situated on the S. Kapoeas and TEYSMANN has been at Sintang. but neither on the Lawas River not near Undup, on the Batang Lupar River.
This striking and easily distinguishable species grows only in the northwestern part of Borneo ; it has this distribution in common with some other species ; see the general discussion. As far as known N. bicalcarata is very uniform. The elevation, on which this species has been found is not known ; the only record is that of HALLIER, who (N. T. N. I., LIV, p. 450-452) mentions an elevation of 700-950 m.