14. Nepenthes gracilis KORTH., Verh., p. 22, t. I & t. IV, ic. 1-38 (1839) ; Flora, VI, p. 578 (1848) ; BL., Mus., II, p. 10 (1852) ; MIQ., Fl., I, 1, p. 1071 (1858) ; HOOK. F., Transact. Linn. Soc., XXII, p. 422 (1859) ; MIQ., Fl., suppl., p. 151 & 366 (1860) ; Journ. Bot. Néerl., 1, p. 277 (1861) ; TEYSM. & BINN., Cat., p. 99 (1866) ; LEMAIRE, Ill. Hort., XVI, misc., p. 42 & 44 (1869) ; MIQ., Ill., p. 7 (1870) ; HOOK. F., in D.C., Prodr., XVII, p. 104 (1873) ; FERN.-VILL., Nov. app., p. 173 (1880) ; BURB., Gard. Chron., 1882, 1, p. 56 (1882) ; BECC., Mal., III, p. 5 & 14 (1886): HOOK. F., Br. Ind., V, p. 71 (1886) ; WUNSCHM., in ENGL. & PRANTL, Nat. Pflanzenfam., III, 2, p. 260 (1891) ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 190 (1895) ; BOERL., Handl., III, 1, p. 54 (1900) ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 58, ic. 2 & 4 (1908) ; Journ. As. Soc. Beng., LXXV, p. 285 (1914) ; Journ. Linn. Soc., XLII, p, 126 (1914) ; in BAIL. Cycl., IV, p. 2127 (1919) ; MERR., Bibl. enum. Born., p. 282 (1921) ; Enum. Phil., II, p. 216 (1923) ; N. laevis LINDL., Gard. Chron., 1848, p. 655 (1848) (non vidi) ; MORR., Ann. Gard., V, p. 16 (1849) ; Belg. Hort., II, p. 234, ic. p. 235 (1852) ; TEYSM. & BINN., Cat. ined., p. 81 (1855) ; BOERL., Handl., III, 1, p. 54 (1900) ; MACF., Kew Bull., 1926, p. 468 (1926) ; N. Korthalsiana MIQ., Fl., I, 1, p. 1071 (1858) ; suppl., p. 151 & 366 (1860) ; Journ. Bot. Néerl., I, p. 277 (1861) ; TEYSM. & BINN., Cat., p. 99 (1866) ; MIQ, Ill., p. 2 & 7, t. 1 (1870) ; KOORD.-SCHUM., Syst. Verz., II, p. 22 (1910) ; N. Teysmanniana MIQ., Fl., I, 1, p. 1073 (1858) ; suppl., p. 151 (1860) ; Journ. Bot. Néerl., I, p. 273, t. I (1861) ; TEYSM. & BINN., Cat., p. 99 (1866) ; MIQ., Ill., p. 7 (1870) ; HOOK. F., in D.C., Prodr., XVII, p. 194 (1873) ; WUNSCHM., in ENGL. & PRANTL, Nat. Pflanzenfam., III, 2, p. 260 (1891) ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 190 (1895), pro var.; BOERL., Handl., III, 1, p. 54 (1900) ; N. angustifolia MAST., Gard. Chron., 1881, 2, p. 524 (1881): BECC., Mal., III, p. 1, 2, 5, 8 (1886) ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 188 (1895) ; MOTT., Dict., III, p. 447 (1896) ; BOERL., Handl., III, 1, p. 54 (1900) ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 59 (1908) ; MERR., Bibl. enum. Born., p. 281 (1921) ; RIDL., Fl., V, p. 327 (1925) ; N. longinodis BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz, 1895, p. 190 (1895), pro var.
Icones: KORTH., Verh., t. 1, bona, colorata, & t. IV, ic. 1-38 (1839) ; MIQ., Journ. Bot. Néerl., I, t. 1 (1861) mala, an parte N. albo-marginata ? ; MIQ., Ill., t. 1 (1870) bona ; ENGL. & PRANTL, Nat. Pflanzenfam., III, 2, ic. 153 & 154 (1891) ; Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 219, ic. 12 (1895) ; ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, ic. 2 & 4 (1908) bonae.
Folia mediocria sessilia, lanceolata v. linearia, nervis longitudinalibus utrinque 4-7, basi lata in alas 2 attenuatas decurrente, vagina 0 ; ascidia rosularum parva, parte inferiore ovata, os versus cylindrica, alis 2 fimbriatis ; peristomio operculum versus acuto, cylindrico, 1/4-1/2 mm lato, costis 1/6-1/10 mm distantibus, dentibus 2 x longioribus quam latis ; operculo suborbiculari subcordato, facie inferiore plana ; ascidia inferiora ut rosularum, sed maiora, in parte inferiore saepe exalata ; ascidia superiora magnitudine mediocria, subtubulosa, parte inferiore leviter ventricosa, medio paulum angustata, os versus paulum infundibuliformia, costis 2 prominentibus ; peristomio operculum versus acuto, cylindrico, l/3-1 mm lato, costis 1/8-1/4 mm distantibus, dentibus c. tam longis quam latis ; operculo suborbiculari basi suborbiculari basi subcordato, facie inferiore plana ; inflorescentia racemus longus pedicellis inferioribus 6-10 mm longis raro longioribus, omnibus 1-floris ; indumentum parcum, passim tenue tomentosum fuscum.
Stems climbing, often up to 2 m, rarely up to 6 m high, the portion with adult leaves 3 to 5 mm thick, the internodes 3 to 10 cm long, obtusely triangular or winged on 2 of the angles ; often rosettes and short shoots at the base of older stems. Leaves of the rosettes up to 3 cm long, lanceolate, with strong midrib and indistinct reticulate lateral nerves, acute, scarcely attenuate towards the base, obliquely clasping the stem for 2/3 or 3/4, hardly decurrent ; tendril usually 2 to 4 cm long, thin, curved down, without curl. Leaves of the short shoots like those of the climbing ones, but often smaller and less-nerved, the tendrils up to 10 cm long, without curl. Leaves of the elongated stems scattered, thin-coriaceous, sessile, lanceolate or linear, about 10 to 20 cm long, 1 1/2 to 4 cm broad, usually acute, rarely subobtuse or slightly peltate at the tip, the margins often parallel over a large part of the length, the base broad and decurrent in 2 attenuate wings over 1/5 to 2/3 (rarely more) of the internode ; nervation distinct, the pennate nerves irregularly reticulate towards the margin, the longitudinal nerves 4 to 7 on each side, all of them originating from the leaf base, running strikingly parallel in the outer 3/4 to 4/5 of the lamina ; tendrils 1 to 1 1/2 times as long as the leaf, with a curl at 2/3 of its length. Pitchers of the rosettes small, up to 5 cm high, with shortly incurved base, ovate in the lower part, cylindrical in the upper part, the width of the lower part about 2/3, that of the mouth about 1/4 of the length ; wings developed over the whole length, fringed, very narrow, the fringe segments about 2 mm long, 1/2 to 1 mm apart ; mouth nearly round, acuminate and elevated towards the lid ; peristome cylindrical, 1/4 to 1/2 mm broad, the ribs 1/6 to 1/10 mm apart, the teeth of the interior margin up to twice as long as broad ; interior surface of the pitcher with minute, slightly or not overarched glands in the ventricose part ; lid suborbicular, slightly cordate at the base, with few round scattered glands on the under surface ; spur not branched, 1 to 2 mm long, inserted close to the lid. Pitchers of the short stems like those of the rosettes, but often larger, up to 10 cm high, often more slender, often not winged in the lower part. Pitchers of the climbing stems shortly incurved from the hanging end of the tendril, usually 6 to 12 cm, rarely up to 16 cm high, tubulose on the average, slightly ventricose in the lower 1/3 part, slightly narrowed in the middle, slightly infundibuliform towards the mouth, the width of the ventricose part and the mouth about 1/5 to 1/3 of the length ; 2 prominent ribs over the whole length or a rudiment of a fringed wing below the mouth ; mouth nearly round, acute and elevated towards the lid ; peristome cylindrical, 1/3 to 1 mm broad, the ribs 1/4 to 1/8 mm apart, the teeth of the interior margin about as long as broad ; inner surface of the pitcher with minute slightly or not overarched glands in the ventricose part, about 200 to 500 glands on 1 cm2 ; lid suborbicular or somewhat longer than broad, with few scattered glands on the lower surface ; spur inserted close to the lid, attenuate, up to 5 mm long. Male inflorescence a long and narrow cylindrical raceme, the peduncle short, 1 to 5 m long, 1 to 2 1/2 mm thick, the axis long, angular and grooved, 10 to 25 cm long, the pedicels 1-flowered or rarely some of the lower ones 2-flowered, 6 to 10 mm long, the upper ones shorter, often very short, 2 to 3 mm long, all of them without bract. Tepals oval to oblong, 2 to 5 mm long. Staminal column, without the anthers, 1/2 to l 1/2 mm long, the anthers in 1 whorl and a small group at the top. Female inflorescence almost like the male one, the tepals narrower, oblong to lanceolate. Ovary slender, sessile. Fruiting raceme 15 to 30 cm long ; fruit slender, attenuate towards both ends, but more so to the top than to the base, usually 10 to 30 mm long, the valves 1 1/2 to 3 1/2 mm broad. Seeds filiform, 9 to 15 mm long, the nucleus delicately prickly. Indumentum on the stems and on the leaves none, the pitchers shortly tomentose with stellate hairs, rarely with longer hairs intermixed, the longer hairs deciduous, the stellate hairs less abundant afterwards, finally only under the peristome a narrow, tomentose ribbon ; axis of the inflorescence sparsely tomentose in the lower part, densely tomentose in the upper part, the pedicels, the tepals and the ovary densely brown-tomentose, the staminal column glabrous, the fruit glabrescent. Colour of the leaves bright-green or yellowish green, shining, the midrib often purple below, the pitchers light-green, rarely with red spots, sometimes with red points towards the mouth, sometimes with a red hue, the inner surface shining-yellow in the lower part, dull-purple in the upper part ; colour of herbarium specimens fallow-dun in very different hues. (Description after the plants of the Buitenzorg Herbarium.)
MALAY PENINSULA. "Birma and Malay Peninsula", undoubtedly the latter, GRIFFITH 4440, H. A. R. T. (m, f) ; Kedah: Kedah Peak (RIDL., Fl., III, p. 24) ; Penang: CURTIS (?) 2586, H. S. (0) ; Batu Feringi, VIII 1893, CURTIS 3050, H. S. (0) ; Perak: SCORTECHINI, H. B. (m): Larut, within 30 m, III 1881, KUNSTLER 4025, H. S. (m) ; III 1883, KUNSTLER 4019, H. S. (m) ; within 90 m, VI 1881, KING'S coll. 1941, H.S. (0), H. B. (0) ; within 30 m, IV 1883, KING'S coll., 4084, H. B. (f) ; Ipoh, XII 1895, CURTIS, H. S. (0) ; Lahat, II 1904, RIDLEY, H. S. (f) ; Taiping, 26 III 1924. HANIFF 13126, H. S. (m, f) ; Pulau Lalang, 21 XI 1925, SEIMUND, H. B. (m) ; Dindings: Pulau Sembilan, III 1892, CURTIS, H. S. (0) ; 1892, RIDLEY 3041, H. S. (m, f) ; Trengganu: Bundi, II 1904, ROSTADO, H. S. (m) ; Telok Jambi, K. Trengganu, 18 V 1925, HOLTTUM 17373, H. S. (0) ; Pahang: Sg. Karang, Kuantan, 13 III 1919, WATSON 1339, H. S. (m), vern. name: periok kera ; Telok Sesik, Kuantan, 5 XII 1924. BURKILL & HANIFF 17348, H. S. (f) ; Pekan, V 1890, RIDLEY 1617, H. S. (f) ; Pramau, 22 VIII 1889 & V 1890, RIDLEY 1473, H. S. (0), type of var. arenaria, young plants ; Selangor: Rantau Panjang (RIDL., Fl., V, p. 327) ; Negri Sembilan: Sg. Ujong, 8 XI 1885, ALVINS 3292, H. S. (0), vern. name: akar purio kura merah ; Seremban, XII 1890 (?), RIDLEY (?), H. S. (f) ; Malacca: 1840, CUMING 2310, H. S. (m), H. L. B. (m) ; 29 II 1885, ALVINS 863, H. S. (f), vern. name: akar pirio kra bitina ; Pulau Basar, 1 X 1891, RIDLEY 3380, H. S. (m) ; Ayer Panas, 0 m, XII 1888, DERRY 85, H. S. (m, f) ; I 1887, DERRY 64, H. S. (f) ; Bt. Payong, 22 VIII 1914, BURKILL 574, H. S. (m) ; Bt. Bruang, V 1901, CURTIS, H. S. (m) ; Johore: Tebing Tinggi, 1900, RIDLEY 11023, H. S. (m, f) ; Seram (?), XI 1900 (?), RIDLEY 11026, H. S. (0) ; Singapore: H. S. (m, f) ; Changi, 27 VII 1889, GOODENOUGH 359 & 460, H. S. (f) ; 1890, RIDLEY, H. S. (m) ; 7 X 1890, RIDLEY, H. S. (m) ; between Ulu Berih & Bajan, 16 I 1913, BURKILL, H. S. (0) ; Bt. Timah, 9 I 1889, RIDLEY, H. S. (0), vern. name: monkey goblets ; Holland Road, 1889, RIDLEY, H. S. (f) ; 9 XI 1913, BURKILL 137, H. S. (f) ; 13 IX 1914, BURKILL 265, H. S. (m) ; Chan Chu Kang, 1905, RIDLEY, H. S. (0) ; Blakang Mati, 1892, RIDLEY, H. S. (m).
SUMATRA. TEYSMANN, H. L. B. 908,155-88 ; H. L. B. 908,156-148, authentic specim. of N. gracilis var. elongata BL.; Gov. Eastcoast: Asahan, below 50 m, III 1919, RUTGERS (no. LÖRZING 6343), H. B. (f) ; Tandjoeng Pasir, 60 m, 15 III 1925, YATES 1392, H. U. C. (f), H. B. (0) ; Sg. Rawah, 5-10 m, 21 XI 1918, BRUINIER 283, H. B. (0), vern. name: priok kera djanten ; plain of the Sg. Batoeng, 50 m, 1 III 1891, KOORDERS 22359[[beta]], H. B. (f) ; plain of the Sg. Kampar, west of Pelalawan, 30 m, 24 III 1891, KOORDERS 22358[[beta]], H. B. (0) ; Res. Westcoast: Sibolga, on the coast, II 1856, TEYSMANN, H. B. (m, f) ; 530, H. B. (0) ; 531, H. B. (0). H. A. R. T. (0) ; 532 & 533, H. B. (0) ; 538, H. A. R. T. (0), authentic specim. of N. Korthalsiana MIQ.; Bt. Api, Tandjoeng Bali, Pangkallan, Koto Baharoe, 11 X 1883, BURCK, H. B. (0) ; Pangkallan, Koto Baharoe, 100 m, IV 1915, JACOBSON 2415, H. B. (0) ; Batoe-Islands, P. Pini, 13 XI 1896, RAAP 590, H. B. (0) ; Res. Riau & Dependencies: P. Karimon, H. S. (0) ; G. Djanten, 300 m, 7 IX 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 7871, H. B. (0), vern. name: tompojong ; P. Doerian, 100 m, 15 VI 1923, RACHMAT 83, H. B. (0) ; P. Bintan, Lobam, 10 m, 15 VI 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6266, H. B. (f) ; H. L. B. (0), vern. name: Sangkop baroeng ; Pangkalan Njiri, 15 m, 24 VI 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6432, H. B. (0), H. L. B. (0) ; Sg. Poelai, 30 m, 20 VI 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6361, H. B. (0). H. L. B. (0) ; Anjoelai, 30 m, 14 VI 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6204, H. B. (0), H. L. B. (0), vern. name: priok kra ; P. Oedjan, 5 m, 25 VI 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6455, H. B. (0), vern. name: akar priok krah ; P. Los, 10 m, 12 VI 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6393, H. B. (0), H. L. B. (0) ; 20 m, 21 VI 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6394, H. B. (0) H. L. B. (0), vern. name: akar kra kra ; P. Bakoeng, 5 m, 19 VIII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 7594, H. B. (0) ; P. Temiang, 20 m, 20 VIII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 7648, H. B. (0), vern. name: akar mopojong ; P. Semarong, 10 m, 18 VIII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 7558, H. B. (0), vern. name: akar mojong ; P. Lingga, G. Daik, 750 m, 16 VII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6715, H. B. (0), vern. name: gendi kre ; 20 m, 12 VII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6608, H. B. (0) ; H. L. B. (0), vern. name: gendi kré ; G. Daik, foot of a hill, 15 VII 1893, HULLETT 5693, H. S. (f) ; Pasir Pandjang, 40 m, 25 VII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 6947, H. B. (m), vern. name: gendi kré ; P. Singkèp, Dabo, 10 m, 4 VIII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 7246, H. B. (f), H. L. B. (m), vern. name: priok kré ; 5 VIII 1919, BÜNNEMEIJER 7311, H. B. (m), vern. name: priok kré ; Res. Bangka: P. Bangka, TEYSMANN, H. A. R. T. 000290 (m), vern. name: ketakona kidjang, authentic specim. of N. Korthalsiana MIQ.; TEYSMANN 3510, H. B. (m), vern. name: ketakong kidjang ; Muntok, TEYSMANN, H. B. (m, f), vern. name: ketakong mendjang ; AMAND, H. L. B. 908,156-158 ; G. Menoembing near Muntok, 40 m, 10 X 1917, BÜNNEMEIJER 1363, H. B. (m, f), vern. name: ketakong ; Sg. Liat, Kp. Parit Padang, 50 m, 9 XI 1917, BÜNNEMEIJER 1922, H. B. (f), H. L. B. (f) ; Belinjoe, Koeala Sg. Pedjem, 2 m, 30 VI 1926, BURGER 18, H. B. (m, f), vern. name: ketakoeng ; Serdang, 13 I 1927, DE LEEUW 20, H. B. (0), vern. name: ketakong njaroeh ; Res Belitoeng: Mangar, TEYSMANN 11081, H. B. (m), vern. name: ketakong njaroe ; Tandjoeng Pandan, TEYSMANN 11082, H. B. (m), vern. name: ketakong njaroe ; Begindoeg, 8 VI 1888, BOERLAGE, H. L. B. 908,154-614, 908,155-791 (m, f) vern. name: ketakong njaroe.
BORNEO. British North Borneo: BURBIDGE, 1877-1878, H. S. (0) ; Balambangan Island, Sipitang (Journ. Linn. Soc., bot., XLII, p. 126) Jesselton, 23-26 X 1915, CLEMENS 9588, H. B. (0) ; Labuan, LOBB, H.S. (0) 15 VI 1858, YAGOR 325, H. Berl., (m) ; 27 XI 1902, MERRILL 5, H. S. (m) Brunei: (BECC., Mal., III, p. 14) ; Sarawak: Lawas River (Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895 p. 190) ; Bintulu (BECC., Mal., III, p. 14) ; Saribas, 10 VII 1911, H. S. M. (m) ; Brooketon, VII 1905, HEWITT, H. S. M. (f) ; Kuching (BECC. Mal., III, p. 14) ; Res. Western Division: TEUSCHER, 1882, H. B. (0) Monterado 40-50 m, X 1927, LUYTJES, H. B. (m) ; Sintang, TEYSMANN 10955 H. B. (0) ; 10956, H. B. (f) ; Sg. Kenepai, 14-23 I, 1894, HALLIER B 2143, H. B. (0) ; foot of G. Kenepai, 23 XII 1893, HALLIER B 1529, H. B. (0) ; Oeloe Kenepai, 20 XII 1893, HALLIER B 1453, H. B. (0) ; between Sg. Djemela & G. Kelam 28 I 1894, HALLIER B 2235, H. B. (0) ; Sg. Kenara, 3-19 XII 1893, HALLIER B 1393, H. B. (m), vern. name: akar ntoejoet ; Southern & Eastern Division: Mada, near Telang, I 1882, GRABOWSKY, H. Berl.; between Boentok & Djihi, 21 VIII 1908, HUBERT WINKLER 3277, H. B. (0) ; H. L. B. (0) ; KORTHALS, "higher sandy and stony grounds" (prob. foot of G. Pamaton, cfr. Korth., Verh., p. 3) H. L. B. 908,156-122 (f) ; 908.156-125 & -126 (m) ; H. A. R. T. 000293, authentic specim. of N. gracilis KORTH.; Palantau River (KORTH., Verh., p. 24) ; probably southern coast ; 1859-1860, DE VRIESE & TEYSMANN, H. L. B. 908,156-134 (0).
SELÉBÈS. Gov. Selébès & Dependencies: Enrékang, Kp. Rapang, 19 VI 1912, NOERKAS (Exp. VAN VUUREN) 338, H. B. (0) ; H. L. B. (0) ; Saädang valley near Sawito, 50 m, 5 IX 1924, TENGWALL, H. B. (m.f.).
Cultivated in the Buitenzorg Botanic Gardens under no. XV.D.59-59a (from Bangka) and in the greenhouse under no. 13 (from Singapore).
Of the synonyms the following require attention: N. laevis, N. Teysmanniana and N. angustifolia.
I have not seen the original description of N. laevis, but the name is generally accepted as a synonym of N. gracilis, except by MACFARLANE, who in 1926 revokes his former opinion and gives the following characters as distinctive for N. laevis: "the non ciliate wings, the deeply decurrent leaf bases, the orbicular lid with few perithecioid honey glands, and the very short staminal column with few anthers". As these, however, are the very characters, which are typical for N. gracilis as I know it, and which are found also in the authentic specimens in the H. B.., the arguments, MACFARLANE puts forward for the distinction of N. laevis, convince me of the contrary.
N. Teysmanniana is enumerated among the synonyms of N. albo-marginata by MACFARLANE. It is true that the authentic specimens of N. Teysmanniana in H. A. R. T. really belong to N. albo-marginata, but this is not the only decisive argument. In H. B. there are no authentic specimens ; there are specimens of N. gracilis with old labels bearing the name N. Teysmanniana, but it is not clear who has written them ; there are also specimens of N. gracilis, originally cultivated in the Buitenzorg Botanic Gardens and named N. Teysmanniana. I suppose these plants to have been collected by TEYSMANN near Sibolga for the Botanic Gardens and cultivated there under the name, TEYSMANN gave it. On a label of one of this specimens MACFARLANE has written: "I regard N. Teysmanniana as in no way different from N. gracilis, as we know the two at present". Now the original description by MIQUEL delineates almost wholly N. gracilis, and certainly not N. albo-marginata. The few aberrant characters which remind the latter: the leaves with 3 longitudinal nerves on each side and slightly decurrent base, occur now and then in N. gracilis too. The plate in Journal de Botanique Néerlandais represents N. albo-marginata according to BECCARI, but, though it is bad, I do not see anything in it but N. gracilis, except in one pitcher, which may be taken from N. albo-marginata. Therefore I think it probable that MIQUEL has confused N. gracilis and N. albo-marginata in distinguishing N. Teysmanniana, but the original description almost purely referring to N. gracilis, I have placed N. Teysmanniana under the synonyms of the latter.
N. angustifolia MAST. seems to differ in almost nothing from N. gracilis, and I agree with the authors who have united it with the latter species ; so I am surprised that MACFARLANE enumerates it as a distinct species. BECK is certainly wrong, when he considers it as form of N. tentaculata: the original description of MASTERS proves this sufficiently.
The var. elongata, based on the larger dimensions of the leaves, the var. N. Teysmanniana and N. longinodis, the former of which is a mistake, whereas the latter is based on a specimen with very long internodes only, and the var. arenaria (RIDL.) MACF., based on plants with many short, not yet grown out stems, are of no value.
N. gracilis is not polymorphous and not difficult to be distinguished, though several species show a superficial resemblance with it. The dispersion is almost restricted to the Sunda-shelf (see general chapters). The elevation on which it is found, varies between sea level and 750 m, but most of the habitats are situated beneath 100 m. The habitat is the forest as well as shrub and open grounds, mostly however wet places or borders. N. gracilis seems to be not restricted to sterile soils, but, like other species, it does not grow on salty spots. KORTHALS discovered it at the foot of Mt. Pamaton, on barren, vulcanic, stony ground.
From different places there is recorded some use of this species ; from Malay Peninsula: "the roots are to be boiled & given in cases of dysentery and stomacheache"; from P. Lingga: "an extract is used in cases of mouth-ache and swollen tongue."
Vernacular names. In the Malay Peninsula, English: monkey goblets, Malay: perioek kera, akar perioek kera betina, akar perioek kera mérah ; on the eastern coast of Sumatra, Malay: perioek kera djantan, in the Riau-Archipelago, Malay: tompojong, sangkop baroeng, perioek kera, akar perioek kera, akar kera kera ; in the Lingga-Archipelago, Malay: akar mopojong, akar mojong, gendi kerè, periok kerè ; in Bangka, Malay: ketakong, ketakoeng, ketakong kidjang, ketakong menjang, ketakong njaroe, ketakong pelandoh ; in the Western Division of Borneo, Malay: akar ntoejoet. DE CLERCQ records the Batak name: hare hare mombang baroe, the Javanese names: kali-kotjika, kali koetjika and the Malay name: ketakoeng kera.
Of these names several have an obvious significance. Periok kera or periok kerè means monkeys' rice pots, the adjectives mèrah, bitina and djantan resp. red, female (i.e. less beautifull, smaller) and male (i.e. more beautifuller, larger) ; akar kera kera means monkeys' climbing plant ; tompojong, mopojong, mojong seem to be proper names for Nepenthes ; gendi kerè is monkeys' jug ; ketakong is the Bangka name for Nepenthes and for the tying material made from the stems ; it is striking, that this name is often followed by names of animals, obviously without the intention to distinguish species. Kidjang is a little deer, mendjang a deer, pelandoh a dwarf deer ; kera is a monkey. The Javanese names DE CLERCQ gives for this species, not occurring in Java, have certainly reference to N. gymnamphora. The name akar ntoejoet is the same as akar oentoejoet ; in N.T.N.I., LIV, p. 427, and Naturwiss. Wochenschr., XI, p. 97, HALLIER tells, the Malay called a species antoejoet aroewai, after the argus pheasant, for the many spots on the pitchers.