Danser's Monograph on Nepenthes: Nepenthes Maxima

25. Nepenthes maxima NEES, Ann. Sc. Nat., III, p. 369, t. 20, 2 (1824) ; KORTH., Verh., p. 37 (1839) ; BL., Mus., II, p. 8 (1852) ; MIQ., Fl., I, 1, p. 1075 (1858) ; Ill., p. 8 (1870) ; HOOK. F., in D.C., Prod., XVII, p. 105 (1873) ; BECC., Mal., III, p. 3 & 9, t. I, ic. 1 (1886) excl. syn. & var.; BECK., Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 148 (1895) excl. var.; KOORD., Versl. Dienstr. Minah., p. 567 (1896) ; BOERL., Handl., III, 1, p. 54 (1900) ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 74 (1908) ; RIDL., Transact. Linn. Soc., ser. 2, bot., IX, p. 140 (1916) ; MERR., Interpr., p. 242 (1917) ; MACF., in GIBBS, Contr., p. 141 (1917) ; in BAIL., Cycl., IV, p. 2129 (1919) ; MERR., Bibl. enum. Born., p. 283 (1921) ; N. celebica HOOK. F., in D.C., Prodr., XVII, p. 100 (1873) ; BECC., Mal., III, p. 5 (1886) ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 145 (1895) ; KOORD., Versl. Dienstr. Minah., p. 566 (1898) ; BOERL., Handl., III, 1, p. 54 (1900) ; HEMSL., Gard. Chron., 1905, 1, p. 260 (1905) ; N. Boschiana BECC., Mal., I, p. 214 (1878) ; non KORTH., Verh., p. 25, t. 2 (1839) &c.; N. Curtisii MAST., Gard. Chron., 1887, 2, p. 681, ic. 133 (1887) ; (Curtisi) MAST., Gard. Chron., 1889, 2, p. 660, ic. 90 (1889) ; HOOK. F., Bot. Mag., t. 7138 (1890) ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 145, ic. 4, t. Ia (1895) ; MOTT., Dict., III, p. 447 (1896).

Icones: Ann. Sc. Nat., III, t. 20, 2 (1824) fragmenta tantum ; BECC., Mal., III, t. I, ic. 1 (1686) optima ; Gard. Chron., 1887, 2, p. 689 (1887) optima, ascidia ; Gard, Chron., 1889, 2, p. 661 (1889) optima, ascidium ; Bot. Mag., t. 7138 (1890) optima, colorata ; Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 143, ic. 3 & 4, t. Ia colorata (1895), optimae ; ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 75 (1908) optima.

Folia mediocria petiolata, lamina oblonga v. lanceolata, nervis longitudinalibus utrinque plerumque 3-4, vagina 1/2-2/3 caulis amplectente saepe in alas 2 decurrente ; ascidia rosularum ignota ; ascidia inferiora ellipsoidea v. parte inferiore anguste ovata os versus cylindrica, alis 2 fimbriatis ; peristomio operculum versus acuminato, applanato, 1-20 mm lato, costis c. 1/4-1/2 mm distantibus, dentibus 1-3 x longioribus quam latis ; operculo ovato-cordato, facie inferiore prope basin appendice lateraliter applanata, prope apicem appendice filiformi v. claviformi ; ascidia superiora infundibuliformia v. tubulosa, plerumque costis 2 elevatis raro alis 2 fimbriatis; peristomio operculum versus in collum elongato, cylindrico, applanato v. expanso, 2-25 mm lato, costis 1/2-1/4 mm distantibus, dentibus 1-2 x longioribus quam latis ; operculo ovato-cordato, facie inferiore prope basin appendice lateraliter applanata, prope apicem appendice filiformi v. claviformi ; inflorescentia racemus pedicellis inferioribus 10-20 mm longis, 2-floris, superioribus 1-floris ; indumentum breviter villosum, plerumque copiosum.

Stems climbing, 1/2 m to 3 m long, the part with adult leaves 3 to 9 mm thick, cylindrical or more or less triangular, often winged on 2 of the 3 angles, the internodes up to 10 cm long ; often short shoots at the base of older plants. Rosettes unknown. Leaves of the short shoots scattered, petiolate, the lamina elliptical to obovate or oblong, up to 18 cm long, up to 7 cm broad, rarely very small, obtuse or acute, abruptly or gradually contracted into the petiole, which is 1/3 to 1/4 as long as the lamina, narrowly winged and dilated at the base into a wholly amplexicaul sheath ; pennate nerves running almost straight to the margin, longitudinal nerves 2 to 4 on each side, originating from the basal part of the midrib, running imperfectly parallel in the outer 1/3 part of the lamina ; tendril shorter than the lamina, curved downwards. Leaves of the climbing stems coriaceous, scattered or alternate, petiolate, oblong to lanceolate, usually 15 to 30 cm long, 2 1/2 to 7 cm broad, obtuse or acute, rarely slightly peltate at the apex, abruptly or gradually attenuate into the petiole, the petiole variable of length, up to 1/3 as long as the lamina, narrowly winged, dilated at the base to a sheath clasping the stem for 1/2 or 1/3 or decurrent into 2 wings, which are very variable in length, up to 8 mm broad, at most reaching to the following internode ; nervation often indistinct, the pennate nerves numerous, running almost straight to the margin, mostly irregularly reticulate, the longitudinal nerves usually 3 or 4, rarely 5 on each side, in small leaved forms very indistinct or wholly none, imperfectly parallel, if distinct originating from the basal part of the midrib ; tendrils 1 to l l/2 times as long as the lamina, the pitcher-bearing ones always with curl. Rosette pitchers not known. Pitchers of the short shoots gradually originating from the tendril, very shortly incurved, ovate in the lower 2/3 part, conical to cylindrical in the upper part, or the whole pitcher more ellipsoidal, widest in the middle, up to 20 cm high, up to 6 cm wide, with 2 fringed wings over the whole length, the basal part excepted, the wings up to 8 mm broad in the upper part, the fringe segments up to 6 mm long, 1 to 4 mm apart ; mouth oblique or very oblique, acuminate towards the lid and elongated into a neck 1 to 2 cm long ; peristome flattened or expanded, 1 to 5 mm broad in front, 2 to 20 mm broad at some distance from the lid, the ribs 1/4 to 1 mm apart, the teeth of the interior margin 2 to 3 times as long as broad ; inner surface of the pitcher glandular up to the height of the front side of the peristome, with overarched glands, about 1500 to 1700 glands on 1 cm2 ; lid ovate to triangular-ovate, cordate at the base, with a laterally flattened appendage near the basal part of the midrib and a filiform or claviform, rarely shorter, appendage near the apex, with few rather large deepened and rimmed glands on the lower surface, especially near the margin, also on the appendages ; spur rather thick, acute, up to 5 mm long and inserted at about 5 mm from the lid. Pitchers of the climbing stems abruptly or gradually originating from the hanging end of the tendril, incurved with a 5 to 55 mm wide curve, very differently shaped, infundibuliform to tubulose, 7 to 30 cm high, 1.8 to 8 cm wide, mostly with 2 prominent ribs over the whole length, rarely, especially towards the mouth, with more or less developed fringed wings, the fringe like that of the inferior pitchers, mouth almost horizontal in the front part, acuminate and elongated into a neck up to 3 cm long in large pitchers ; peristome usually flattened-cylindrical, rarely expanded, 1 1/2 to 25 mm broad at some distance from the lid, the ribs 1/2 or 1/4 mm apart, the teeth of the interior margin 1 to 2 times as long as broad ; inner surface glandular for about 2/3 in the tubulose pitchers, up to the front side of the peristome in infundibuliform pitchers, the glands overarched, about 800 to 1300 on 1 cm2 ; lid triangular-ovate to narrowly triangular, 2 to 7 cm long, the breadth about 1/4 to 3/4 of the length, obtuse, more or less cordate at the base, with a laterally flattened appendage on the basal part of the midrib, a filiform to claviform appendage near the tip and many large rounded glands over the whole surface, also on the appendages ; spur not branched, filiform, acute, 5 to 20 mm long, inserted at about 2 to 7 mm from the lid. Male inflorescence a raceme, the peduncle 10 to 20 cm, the axis 12 to 30 cm long, 2 to 5 mm thick, attenuate, the pedicels mostly all of them without bract, the lower ones 2-flowered, 10 to 20 mm long, the upper ones 1-flowered, only little shorter than the lower ones. Tepals oval, 3 to 4 mm long. Staminal column as long as or a little longer than the tepals, the anthers in 1 whorl. Female inflorescence in the main like the male one, shorter on the average, 5 to 20 cm long, the tepals somewhat narrower than in the male flower. Ovary shortly peduncled. Fruit 25 to 45 mm long, very slender, strongly attenuate towards both ends, the valves narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, l 1/2 to 3 mm broad. Seeds filiform, about 10 to 20 mm long, the nucleus delicately transversely wrinkled. Indumentum in all parts densely velvety when young, the almost glabrous upper surface of the leaves excepted, disappearing on the stems, almost wholly deciduous on the leaves below, on the tendrils and pitchers sparse at length, persisting on the inflorescences, especially dense on the pedicels and the tepals outside, the staminal column slightly hairy at the base, glabrous for the rest, the ovary very densely hairy, the fruit sometimes still rather densely hairy when ripe, usually sparsely hairy or glabrous. Colour of the leaves quite green, pitchers light-green to white, often with brown-red or violet spots near the mouth, the peristome and the lid often red or with red stripes. Colour of herbarium specimens in general yellowish-brown, the leaves fallow above, more reddish below. (Description after all the plants seen by the author.)

BORNEO. Sarawak: Mt. Penrissen, foot, 24 XI 1909, coll. Sar. Mus., H. S. M. (0) ; G. Rumput, 18 VIII 1918, ANDERSON 218, H. S. (0), H. B. (0) ; G. Poi (BECC., Mal., III, p. 3) ; Res. Western Division: G. Kenepai, 30 XII 1893-5 I 1894, HALLIER B 1716, H. B. (0) ; Res. Southern & Eastern Division: Bt. Mili, 22 X 1898, AMDJAH (Exp. NIEUWENHUIS) 102, H. B. (f).

SELÉBÈS. Res. Manado: G. Roemengan, 1821, REINWARDT 1537, H. L. B. (0), type of N. maxima NEES ; Gutuing Abaawa, FORSTEN 301, H. L. B. (m), authentic specimen of N. maxima BLUME ; forest Loelomboelan, near Pakoe-oere, 600-800 m, 4 IV 1895, KOORDERS 18330[[beta]], H. B. (f) ; G. Ridengan, Sapoetan Mts., 1400-1550 m, 3 V 1895, KOORDERS 18331[[beta]], H. B. (m, f), also on alcohol, vern. name: soeme seled (Tontemboan) ; idem, KOORDERS 18333[[beta]], H. B. (0) ; Masarang, summit, 1200 m, 10 I 1895, KOORDERS 18332[[beta]], H. B. (0), vern. name: longkala ; Sapoetan, 5 V 1895, KOORDERS 18334[[beta]], H. B. (m), also on alcohol ; Bada, LE COCQ D'ARMANDVILLE, H. B. (0), vern. name: tala baine ; Gov. Sélèbes & Dependencies: G. Malabo, VIII 1913, RACHMAT (Exp. VAN VUUREN) 513 & 514, H. B. (m), also on alcohol ; G. Limboeng, XII 1913, RACHMAT (Exp. VAN VUUREN) 936, H. B. (m), H. L. B. (m) ; Masawa Polewali, 15 VIII 1912, NOERKAS (Exp. VAN VUUREN) 505, H. B. (m, f), H. L. B. (0).

MOLUCCAS. Halmahéra, Mt. Doekono, W. Tobelo, 800 m, 28 XII 1922, BEGUIN 2313, H. B. (m, f), vern. name: kèlo fano ; Tidore, in cacumine montis, REINWARDT, H. L. B. 908,154-596 (0) ; Tidore, Kië Matoeboe, summit, 1500 m, 8 VII 1926, LAM 3745, H. B. (0), vern. name (Tidorese): kalfano ; Boeroe, BINNENDIJK, H. B. (0), cfr. N. petiolata ; between Leksoela & Mnges' Waen, 1290 m, 14 IV 1921, TOXOPEUS 143, H. B. (m) ; Fat' Koton, summit, 1475 m, 1/2 III 1922, TOXOPEUS, H. B. (f) ; Séran, G. Loemoete, 850 m, 6 II 1919, RUTTEN 2041, H. B. (f) ; Walokone, Hatoe Sosokoetai, 1400 m, 11 V 1919, RUTTEN 2218, H. B. (m) ; mountains near Loki and Mamalo (RUMPHIUS, Herb. Amb., V, p. 122) ; Amboina, BINNENDIJK. H. B. (0) ; VII-IX 1913, ROBINSON 1903, H. B. (0) ; ROBINSON 1904, H. L. B. (0) ; Hila, TEYSMANN, H. B. (f) ; Latoea, 24 VII 1900, BOERLAGE 463, H. B. (0) ; Salhoetoe, summit, 1900, BOERLAGE 165, H. B. (0), vern. name: tampajan setan.

NEW GUINEA. Northwestern part: Arfak Mts., Angi River, 1900 m, 28 IV 1912, GJELLERUP 1130, H. B. (m, f) ; in open marsh, near Women Lake, 2100 m (GIBBS, Contr., p. 141) ; ridge to Doorman-top, G. Boetak, 1460 m, X 1920, LAM 2156, H. B. (0) ; Nassau Mts., 1500 m, X 1926, DOCTERS VAN LEEUWEN 10995, H. B. (0) ; Southwestern part: Hellwig-Gebergte, 1350-1600 m, XI 1909, VON RÖMER 1156 & 1192, H. B. (0) ; 1700 m, 15 XII 1912, PULLE 710, H. B. (m, f) ; 1750 m, Bijenkorfbivak, 13 XII 1912, PULLE 659, H. B. (0) ; 1900 m, 27 XII 1912, PULLE 843, H. B. (f): eastern part of the Orò valley, 1400 m, 25 II 1913, PULLE 1137, H. B. (0) ; Southeastern part: Mt. Wori-wori, 1200 m, 1885-1886, FORBES 643, H. C. (f).

MACFARLANE has been the first author, who united N. maxima, N. celebica and N. Curtisii, and I can wholly agree with him with regard to this. The N. Boschiana of BECCARI, however, also belongs to N. maxima, whereas BECK's N. fallax is a synonym of N. stenophylla.

The area of distribution is very remarkable: lt ranges from western Borneo to eastern New Guinea. See the general chapters.

The species most nearly related and difficultly distinguishable is N. Veitchii ; see the discussion of this species.

N. maxima varies more than most other species of Nepenthes, especially in New Guinea. In Borneo there is a great variability in the dimensions of all parts, in the form of the pitchers, which can be more or less wide and funnel-shaped or tubulose, and in the manner in which the leaves are inserted on the stem. This suggests, that, N. Veitchii too might be an extreme form only of N. maxima, but other facts make this improbable. In New Guinea forms have been found, which only with doubt I have brought to this species. Most aberrant is GJELLERUP 1130, 3 small plants, 2 female ones and a male one. The stems of these plants obviously have grown erect, and are respectively 13, 30 and 35 cm high ; the leaves are lanceolate, 4 to 7 cm long the petiole included, at most l l/2 cm broad, with one longitudinal nerve on each side or without such ; the pitchers are 5 to 9 cm high, cylindrical in the upper 3/5 part ; the inflorescences too are very small: the longest is the male one, which is about 12 cm long, with tepals 2 1/2 to 4 mm long ; the lid, however, bears typical appendages of N. maxima and also in other respects these plants are small specimens of N. maxima. I suspect, that also N. oblanceolata may be an aberrant form of N. maxima, its specific differences with N. maxima being less than those between the plants of GJELLERUP and the normal form. A similar plant is the var. minor MACF. (in GIBBS, Contr., p. 141), "omnibus partibus minor", also from the Arfak Mts., and from not much greater height. The var. sumatrana BECC. (Mal., III, p. 3) belongs to N. Treubiana ; the var. Lowii is the same as Boschiana var. Lowii, for which see under N. Boschiana.

The elevation, on which N. maxima has been found varies, as far as known, between 600 and 2100 m ; this gives this species a fair opportunity of dispersion. It is remarkable, that N. maxima is also found in Sélèbes and in the Moluccas. When we take into consideration, that in the Moluccas only N. maxima and N. mirabilis have been found, it is almost certain, that the Canthariferae "alia species alba" of RUMPHIUS is N. maxima, as is generally accepted.

Vernacular names. In the Minabasa (Tontemboan): soeme seled, paelepan-i-endo ; (Tomboeloe): longkala ; in Central Sélèbes ; tala-baine, in Northern Haimahera (Ternatan): kèlo-fano ; in Tidore (Tidorese): kalfano ; in Amboina (Malay): tempajan sètan. The latter means: devil's water-cask. Cfr. also the names RUMPHIUS gives for N. mirabilis and which certainly have reference to N. maxima too.

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