51. Nepenthes villosa HOOK. F., in HOOK., Ic. pl., t. 888 (1852) ; HOOK. PAT., Bot. Mag., t. 5080 (1858) pro parte ; YAN HOUTTE, Fl. serr., XIII, p. 27, t. 1304-1305 (1858) pro parte ; HOOK. F., Transact. Linn. Soc., XXII, p. 420, t. LXIX (1859) ; MIQ., Fl., I, 2, p. 688 (1859) ; Journ. Bot. Néerl., I, p. 277 (1861) ; LEMAIRE, Ill. Hort., XVI, misc., p. 46, ic. p. 45 (1869) pro parte ; MIQ., Ill., p. 7 (1870) ; HOOK. F., in D.C., Prodr., XVII, p. 94 (1873) ; BURB., Gard. Chron., 1882, 1, p. 56 (1882) ; BECC., Mal., III, p. 3 (1886) ; DIXON, Gard. Chron., 1888, 1, p. 170 (1888) ; WUNSCHM. in ENGL, & PRANTL, Nat. Pflanzenfam., III, 2, p. 260 (1891) ; STAPF, Transact. Linn. Soc., ser. 2, bot., IV, p. 217 (1894) ; BECK, Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895 p. 183 (1895) ; MOTT., Dict., III, p. 451 (1896) ; VEITCH, Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc., XXI, p. 234 seq. (1897) ; BURB., ibid. p. 258 (1897) ; BOERL., Handl., III, 1, p. 53 & 54 (1900) ; MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 52, ic. 16 (1908) ; Journ. Linn. Soc., bot., XLII, p. 126 (1914) ; in BAIL., Cycl, IV p. 2127, ic. 2462, I (1919) ; MERR., Bibl. enum. Born., p. 285 (1921) ; DANS. Trop. Nat., XVI p. 203, ic. 8 (1927) ; N. Edwardsiana HOOK. F., Transact. Linn. Soc., XXII, p. 420, t. LXX (1859) ; MIQ., Ill., p. 7 (1870) ; HOOK. F., in D.C., Prodr., XVII, p. 95 (1873) ; BURB., Gard. Chron., 1882, 1, p. 56 (1882) ; BECC., Mal., III, p. 3 (1886) ; DIXON, Gard. Chron., 1888, 1, p. 170 (1888) ; WUNSCHM., in ENGL. & PRANTL, Nat. Pflanzenfam., III, 2, p. 260 (1891) ; STAPF, Transact. Linn. Soc., ser. 2, bot., IV, p. 217 (1894) ; BECK Wien. Ill. Gartenz., 1895, p. 183 (1895) ; VEITCH, Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. XXI, p. 234 seq. (1897) ; BURB., ibid. p. 258 (1897) ; BOERL., Handl., III, 1 p. 54 (1900) ; HEMSL., Gard. Chron., 1905, 1, p. 242 (1905) ; MACF, in ENGL. Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 53, ic. 16 (1908) ; Journ. Linn. Soc., bot., XLII, p 126 (1914) ; in BAIL., Cycl., IV, p. 2127 (1919) ; MERR., Bibl. enum. Born. p. 282 (1921) ; N. Harryana BURB., Gard. Chron., 1882, 1, p. 56 (1882) DIXON, Gard. Chron., 1888, 1, p. 170 (1888) ; BURB., Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. XXI, p. 258 (1897) ; N. Edwardsiana x villosa MACF., in ENGL., Pflanzenr. IV, 111, p. 54 (1908) ; MERR., Bibl. enum. Born., p. 282 (1921).
Icones: HOOK, lc. pl., t. 888 (1852) optima, sine asc.; Bot. Mag., t. 5080 (1852) pars non colorata ; Transact. Linn., Soc., XXII, t. LXIX & LXX (1859) optimae ; Ill. Hort., XVI, ic. p. 45 (1869) pro parte ; Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc., XXI, p. 248. ic. 55 & 56 (1897) optimae ; ENGL., Pflanzenr., IV, 111, p. 22 & 53 (1908) optimae ; BLEEKER, Handb. Bloemist., p. 402 (1918) bona, asc. 1 ; BAIL., Cycl., IV, ic. 2462, 1 (1919) optima ; Trop. Nat., XVI, p. 203, ic. 8 (1927).
Folia mediocria petiolata, lamina obovato-oblonga v. lanceolata, nervis longitudinalibus utrinque 2-3, vagina caulem fere totum amplectente ; ascidia rosularum ignota ; ascidia inferiora magna, breviter ovata, costis 2 ad os alatis fimbriatis ; peristomio operculum versus in collum elongato 6-12 mm lato, costis altis 3-12 mm distantibus, dentibus 1-3 x longioribus quam latis ; operculo rotundato-cordato v. paulum reniformi, facie inferiore plano ; ascidia superiora magna, parte inferiore ventricosa os versus cylindrica, costis 2 prominentibus ; peristomio operculum versus in collum elevato, 12-22 mm lato, costis altis 3-12 mm distantibus, dentibus 1-3 x longioribus quam latis ; operculo rotundato-ovato v. paulum reniformi, facie inferiore plano ; inflorescentia racemus pedicellis inferioribus 12 mm longis omnibus 1-floris ; indumentum villosum.
Stems climbing or not, cylindrical to obtusely and irregularly angular, about 8 mm thick, the internodes up to 3 cm long. Rosettes unknown. Leaves scattered, coriaceous, petiolate ; lamina lanceolate to oblong or more or less spathulate, 10 to 22 cm long, 5 to 9 cm broad, obtuse or shortly acuminate or slightly emarginate, gradually or abruptly contracted into the petiole ; petiole broadly winged in the lower leaves, narrowly in the upper leaves, canaliculate, forming a laterally flattened, wholly amplexicaul sheath ; pennate nerves indistinct, irregularly reticulate, running obliquely towards the margin, longitudinal nerves 1 to 3 on each side, originating from the very base of the lamina, running parallel in the outer 1/3 to 1/4 of the lamina ; tendrils once to twice as long as the leaf, those of the lower leaves without, those of the upper leaves with curl. Rosette pitchers unknown. Lower pitchers very shortly incurved from the hanging tendril, rounded at the base, urceolate or shortly ovate, with 2 prominent ribs which are only winged and fimbriate at the top ; mouth very oblique, occupying half the height of the pitcher, acuminate towards the lid and elevated into a neck up to 2 mm long ; peristome cylindrical, 6 to 12 mm broad, the ribs 3 to 12 mm apart, 4 to 6 mm high ; teeth of the inner margin 1 to 3 times as long as broad ; inner surface of the pitcher glandular up to the front side of the mouth, with overarched glands, about 200 to 800 on 1 cm2, above the glandular part with a ribbon about 5 mm broad, shining but not glandular ; lid broadly cordate to reniform, about 5 cm long, 6 cm broad, the lower surface without appendages, with many round deepened and rimmed glands, the marginal part excepted ; spur unknown. Upper pitchers very shortly incurved from the hanging end of the tendril, in the lower 2/5 to 2/7 part almost globose, for the rest somewhat narrower, cylindrical, with 2 prominent wings over the whole length, fringeless or with a rest of a fringed wing at the top ; mouth oblique, incurved, acuminate and elevated into a neck about 2 cm long ; peristome cylindrical, 12 to 22 mm broad, the ribs 3 to 12 mm apart, 6 to 8 mm high, the teeth of the inner margin 1 to 3 times as long as broad ; inner surface of the pitchers shining and glandular in the ventricose part, with minute overarched glands, about 800 to 1300 on 1 cm2, above this part with a shining, not glandular ribbon 1 to 2 mm broad ; lid suborbicular, rounded or truncate at the apex, slightly cordate, more broad than long, on the lower surface without appendages, with round, deepened and rimmed glands, in the median part and near the margin few glands, mainly between these parts ; spur not branched, flattened, inserted close to the lid. Male inflorescence a raceme, the peduncle about 15 to 20 cm long, cylindrical, about 3 mm thick in the upper part, somewhat thicker at the base, the axis attenuate, about 20 mm long, densely flowered ; pedicels with a filiform bract above the base, the lower ones about 12 mm long, the upper ones a little shorter, all of them 1-flowered. Tepals rounded-elliptical, about 4 mm long. Staminal column about 3 mm long the anthers included, which are situated in 1 or 1 1/2 whorl. Female inflorescence in the main like the male one, the pedicels coarser, the tepals larger than those of the male flower, oblong, about 7 mm long. Ovary sessile. (Fruit up to 22 mm long. Seeds filiform, 8 to 9 mm long.) Indumentum very variable, sometimes almost none, on the young leaves at most sparse above, rather dense beneath, on the midrib and the tendril dense, later sparse, the inflorescences and the tepals more densely short-hairy, the staminal column sparsely long-hairy at the base, almost glabrous towards the anthers, the ovary densely appressedly hairy. Colour of herbarium specimens fallow-dun to blackish-brown, the non-glandular part of the inner surface of the pitcher blue and pruinose. (Description after all the specimens seen by the author, the part between brackets completed with the descriptions of MACFARLANE.)
BORNEO. British North Borneo: Mt. Kinabalu, 2400 m, 1892, HAVILAND 1656/1232, H. S. M. (m) ; Marai-parai spur, 1650 m, 1892, HAVILAND 1813/1353, H. S. M. (0) ; Marai-parai spur, 22-23 XI 1915, CLEMENS 10871, H. B. (0) ; Paka Cave to Low's Peak, 13 XI 1915, CLEMENS 10627, H. B. (f).
With some hesitation I unite N. villosa and N. Edwardsiana under the first
name. HOOKER himself already suggested the nessecity of this union and BECK was
the first to
realise it in nomenclatorial sense. HOOKER supposed N. Edwardsiana to be a more developed form of N. villosa, but I think the relation between the two forms is another, N. Edwardsiana being the normal form, i.e. more agreeing with the normal type of most Nepenthes species, N. villosa being the form of high mountains, flowering in the juvenile stage of development. This is pointed out by the following facts. The form, originally described as N. villosa, has been found at a elevation of 2400 to 2700 m, N. Edwardsiana, however, at an elevation of 1500 to 1650 m. N. Edwardsiana is described as a climbing plant, N. villosa as low-climbing or prostrate. The indumentum of N. villosa is more dense than that of N. Edwardsiana, but already HOOKER drew attention to the fact, that this is a difference only of degree. The difference in the shape of the pitchers also occurs in similar forms of other species, the differences in the inflorescences too. Yet there may remain minor differences, that can not be ascribed to the differences in habitat. MACFARLANE says: "Examinatione microscopica probatur, illas species distinctas esse". This probably is based on the old belief that plants, which differ anatomically, can not be forms of the same species. The plant BURBIDGE describes as N. Harryana and which may be a hybrid of N. Edwardsiana and N. villosa, can as well be an intermediate form. To argue his opinion, BURBIDGE says: "they are quite distinct in zone of the mountain", but this exactly is an argument for the supposition, that all three Nepenthes mentioned are forms of a single species, originated under the influence of the different elevation of the habitat. Considered in this way N. villosa, though only found on Mt. Kinabalu, seems to be rather variable, but the variability is very insufficiently investigated. About the mode of growth BURBIDGE remarks (l.c.) that N. Edwardsiana is purely epiphytical on Casuarinas, Dacrydiums, Rhododendrons &c." Whereas N. villosa according to the same author is "different in terrestrial habit". Of course it is questionable, whether this is always so, but in general this may be the case when the relation between the two forms, described as N. villosa and N. Edwardsiana, is as I suppose.